The paper is devoted to developing high-performance nanostructured concrete for 3D printing and studying its strength and operational characteristics. The research addresses issues related to the use of modern concrete chemistry, such as plasticisers and concrete hardening accelerators, and nanomodification by two types of nanocarbon: nanotores (Astralene) and sulphur graphene (Ugleron). The designed lightweight concrete for 3D printing has a compressive strength of about 70 MPa and 9 MPa after extrusion at a density of about 1.55–1.6 kg/m³. Pozzolan additives from industrial waste in concrete are used, such as silica fume and oil shale ash. Microspheres, which are also industrial wastes, are used as lightweight aggregate and thixotropy regulators. As a result, lightweight, high-performance concrete for 3D printing was developed, which allows the disposal of industrial waste inside it.