Practice shows, that constructive elements the most damaged by the environmental conditions are external walls of apartment houses and, accordingly, these constructive elements demand a complex estimation of their condition about decreasing of their operational characteristics which provide their bearing ability and heat-shielding properties, and development of ways of a prolongation of an operational resource.
In the given work the structure of silicate brick is analyzed, questions of a technical condition, the forecast and ways of prolongation of a residual operational resource of external walls of buildings on the basis of a silicate brick of construction 40 - 70 уеаrs are considered. The analysis is made using physical and chemical methods on an example of an available housing of this category in cities of Republic Bashkortostan.
The received results of a condition of buildings external walls laying allow to make a conclusion about decreasing of silicate brick external wall bearing ability for the long period of operation (?70 years) within the limits of up to 10-15% due to reduction of effective section by 7-12%, decreasing in durability of a facing brick to 15-20%. Materials (a brick and a masonry mortar) of external walls of buildings deeper layers are in much better or even in practically initial condition that is proved out by the big number of inhabited objects inspections. Prolongation of a residual operational resource of an external wall on the basis of a silicate brick is possible by its protection by waterproofing materials (plaster systems, waterproof getting compositions) in a combination of the named systems of hydro-protection with effective facade heat-insulation.