Recommendations for references compilation and formating

In the INTRODUCTION section, an overview of the world's scientific publications is presented. It confirms the absence of a solution to the problem in literary sources and indicates predecessors on whose studies the work is based. The literature review should be a critical analysis of scientific publications. It must justify (motivate) the need for research, done by the author of the article. From the literature review, the formulation of the study’s relevance follows. In this section, the author describes the research subject and lists its parameters in numerical and/or logical values. The aim and objectives of the research are formulated.

A representative list of literature characterizes the relevance and qualitative level of research conducted by the author. These recommendations are compiled in accordance with global trends and contribute to greater openness of scientific publications as well as improve the performance of articles and their authors in databases.

Recommendations on completeness and representativeness

  1. Volume. It is recommended to include in the list of references scientific articles, monographs, conference proceedings, electronic resources with a date of reference. The list of references should include at least 25 scientific publications available to a wide range of English-speaking readers.
    Available publications are:
    1.1. Scientific publications indexed in Scopus or Web of Science databases. Such publications should be at least 17.
    1.2. Open access scientific publications in English in peer-reviewed scientific sources.
    1.3. Open access scientific publications and patents in a language other than English in peer-reviewed scientific sources and have English-language metadata (source name, the title of the article, author's data, abstract, keywords, list of references) links to the publication.
    It is strongly recommended not to include textbooks, teaching aids, lecture notes and other educational literature in the article, dissertation, interstate and state normative documents, standards, instructions. 
  2. Relevance. For a representative review of the literature, it is necessary that the sources were relevant. We recommend to have in the list of literature at least 8 articles from scientific journals not older than 10 years, 6 of them not older than 3 years.
  3. Geography. According to the requirements of the journal, the literature review should confirm the lack of a solution to the stated goal in the world literature, and therefore recommend that you have in the references not only your country but also foreign publications. The recommended volume is not less than half of the total number of sources in the literature list. Foreign sources are publications published in a foreign journal (not your country). The language of publication, in this case, is irrelevant.
  4. Self-citation. Within the limits of self-citation, it is not recommended to have more than 5 sources, the authors or co-authors of which are the authors of the article.

Requirements for the list formating

The correctly written description of the source is a guarantee that the cited publication will be taken into account when assessing the author's scientific activity and, as a consequence, the organization.

The quoted literature is given in the general list at the end of the article in the order of mentioning in the text. The ordinal number in the text is enclosed in square brackets (e.g. [9], [11, 12], [16–20]). The article should contain references to all sources from the list of references.

We kindly ask you, when referring to a source, use its official metadata in both Cyrillic and Latin as indicated in the source.

It is highly appreciated to use DOI if it is available.

For the correct format of References, we recommend using the free software Mendeley.

You can find information and guides for using Mendeley.

To use the program you need to install:

Our style for a list of references can be installed by entering the link: Use Mendeley Desktop menu points: View – Citation Style – More Stiles – Get More Styles – Download.
Be sure that you choose “SPBPU-MSE-2019-08-07” reference style in MS Word.

Examples of reference list formatting:

  • book

Niemi, E. Structural Stress Approach to Fatigue Analysis of Welded Components. Designer’s Guide. London, 2000. 102 p.

Taylor, H.F.W. Cement chemistry. 2nd edn. Thomas Telford. London, 1997. 476 p.

  • article 

Alizadeh, R., Beaudoin, J.J., Raki, L. Mechanical properties of calcium silicate hydrates. Materials and Structures. 2011. 44(1). Pp. 13–28.

Shepelenko, T.S., Sarkisov, Y.S. Corrosion products of cement, as effective modifiers increase the strength of cement systems. Australian Journal of Scientific Research. 2014. No. 1. Pp. 374–381.

  • conference paper

Petrova, T.M., Smirnova, O.M., Stasiuk, I.A., Dzhashi, N.A. Influence of Portland cement properties on the early strength of concrete with polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers. Proceedings of 18. Internationale Baustofftagung. IBAUSIL. Weimar, 2012. Pp. 660–667.

Calvo, G.J.L. Performance of concrete in precast products due to heat curing. Proceedings of XIII International Congress on the chemistry of cement. Madrid, 2011. 183 p.

  • electronic resource

Simões, I., Simões, N., Tadeu, A. Laboratory assessment of thermal transmittance of homogeneous building elements using infrared thermography. [Online]. System requirements: AdobeAcrobatReader. URL: (date of application: 03.10.2016).

  • patent

Pye, G.B., Arnott, M.R., Beaudoin, J.J., Tumidajski, P.J., Myers, R.E. Conductive concrete composition. Patent Canada CA 2404513C, 2007.