Polymers consisting of long chain macromolecules with the preferred position of its axes along certain directions are in the oriented state. Oriented polymers are characterized by high tensile strength and its ability to stretch in the direction of axis orientation. Due to these properties, oriented polymers are widely used in the construction industry. By mechanical action, the majority of oriented polymers have non-linear properties. In this paper the defining equation of nonlinear viscoelasticity of oriented polymers was worked on the basis of ideas about the existence of different conformational states of groups of macromolecules separated by an energy barrier. To describe the behavior of oriented polymers the concept of quantum deformation was introduced and kinetics of structural transitions groups of macromolecules through an energy barrier was also considered.