The article shows the results of the research of silica fume particles procured from diatomite from Atemar deposit by means of separating silicic acid from colloidal dissolved state into the sediment. The objective of the work was to define thermal-physical and structural characteristics of the silica fume. The research included IR-spectrometry, granulometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray structural analysis, optical microscopy, and small angle X-Ray scattering. As a result of the research, the silica fume was defined to predominantly consist of amorphous silicon dioxide and had the developed pore structure of particles. A large number of nanosized particles and pores decreases heat transmission and increases reactive capability, that gives opportunity of using the powder silica fume as an active agent in dry mixes and concrete composites, as a component of sponge-glass, and as a filler material in vacuum insulation panel.