Using finely dispersed mineral particles of various origins and morphologies offers a promising strategy in controlling the structure formation in cement composites. However, the use of such additives is hampered because those additives proved to be prone to consolidation into rather dense aggregates. Fine dispersion and disaggregation of powders is possible with the aid of cavitation ultrasonic treatment. However, the optimal conditions for such processing can not be established without conducting simulation studies. The purpose of the present study was the identification of ultrasonic-action factors and conditions ensuring an efficient disaggregation of finely dispersed powders of various origins and particle morphologies. In our study, we used diopside, granulated blastfurnace slag (GBS), wollastonite, ash, and calcium carbonate powders. It is found that the process of ultrasonic treatment of aqueous suspensions is accompanied not only by the dispersion of initial particles and aggregates but, also, by simultaneous formation of new aggregates. That is why the observed variations of the specific surface area and the optical density of powders can be attributed to the variation of the fractional composition of dispersed phase. The activating capability of a mineral additive is due to the fraction of the particles less than 1 μm in size exerting a key influence on the variation of the specific surface area of the powder. Our estimate of the energy efficiency of the cavitation disaggregation of powders during an ultrasonic treatment shows that the most energy-favorable one is the ultrasonic treatment lasting for 1–5 minutes, i.e. during the period of the first half-wave of the variation of the particle fraction less than 1 μm in size.