The paper presents an analysis of the kinetics of heterogeneous processes and patterns of solid formation to substantiate factors and technological methods for nanomodifying the structure and properties of cement-based composites. According to the general evolutionary model of solid formation and evolution of hydration hardening systems model, the main factors and criteria of cement systems nanomodification have been identified for all stages of the technological life cycle. In accordance with the factors of nanomodification of cement systems, the technological methods of nanomodification are identified. As a result of nanomodification, the effects in the structure formation of cement systems are predicted and confirmed by experimental data. Theoretical analysis and experimental results showed that the factors and methods of nanomodification meet the terms of controlling the fracture strength of the cement-based composites. Together, the effects of nanomodification of the structure and factors of increasing the fracture resistance will determine the effectiveness of solutions for engineering practice in terms of reducing the time and the energy costs for processes in the life cycle of cement-based composites, enhancing their quality.